The Anatomy of A Web Attack
Type of Attacks
Security measures are necessary to protect your data that may be subject to attacks. Unfortunately, there are several types of attacks that can be used to compromise your network.
POPULAR ATTACK VECTORS
As security vulnerabilities and motivations for attacks evolve, so do the attack vectors used to compromise your network.
PROTECTING YOUR ENVIRONMENT
Whether your data lives on-premises, cloud or hybrid infrastructures, security measures are necessary to protect your data from attacks.
SQLI causes the database or source code calling the database to confuse [data context] and ANSI SQL [execution context].
Cross Site Scripting
XSS causes the browser to execute user supplied input as code. The input breaks out of the [data context] and becomes [execution context]. Sites vulnerable to XSS are exploited through features of the search engine, login forms and comment fields.
There are three different types of attack vectors. Local, Non-Persistant, and Persistant
RFI: Remote File Inclusion
An attempt to damage, disrupt, or gain unauthorized access to a computer, computer system, or electronic communications network
Secure HTTP Response Headers
Limit Database Priviledges
Test & Sanitize All User Input
Developers should use tools like XSS Me to test their sites for vulnerabilites
Never use arbitrary input data in a literal file include request
OWASP Top 10 2013
Injection flaws, such as SQL, OS, and LDAP injection occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing data without proper authorization.
BROKEN AUTHENTICATION & SESSION MANAGEMENT
Application functions related to authentication and session management are often not implmented correctly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, or session tokens, or to exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users’ identities.
CROSS-SITE SCRIPTING (XSS)
XSS flaws occur whenever an application takes untrusted data and sends it to a web browser without proper validation or escaping. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.
INSECURE DIRECT OBJECT REFERENCES
A direct object reference occurs when a developer exposes a reference to an internal implementation object, such as a file, directory, or database key. Without an access control check or other protection, attackers can manipulate these references to access unauthorized data.
Good security requires having a secure configuration defined and deployed for the application, frameworks, application server, web server, database server, and platform. Secure settings should be defined, implemented, and maintained, as defaults are often insecure. Additionally, software should be kept up to date.
SENSITIVE DATA EXPOSURE
Many web applications do not properly protect sensitive data, such as credit cards, tax IDs, and authentication credentials. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes. Sensitive data deserves extra protection such as encryption at rest or in transit, as well as special precautions when exchanged with the browser.
MISSING FUNCTION LEVEL ACCESS CONTROL
Most web applications verify function level access rights before making that functionality visible in the UI. However, applications need to perform the same access control checks on the server when each function is accessed. If requests are not verified, attackers will be able to forge requests in order to access functionality without proper authorization.
CROSS-SITE REQUEST FORGERY (CSRF)
A CSRF attack forces a logged-on victim’s browser to send a forged HTTP request, including the victim’s session cookie and any other automatically included authentication information, to a vulnerable web application. This allows the attacker to force the victim’s browser to generate requests the vulnerable application thinks are legitimate requests from the victim.
USING COMPONENTS WITH KNOWN VULNERABILITES
Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other software modules, almost always run with full privileges. If a vulnerable component is exploited, such an attack can facilitate serious data loss or server takeover. Applications using components with known vulnerabilities may undermine application defenses and enable a range of possible attacks and impacts.
UNVALIDATED REQUESTS AND FORWARDS
Web applications frequently redirect and forward users to other pages and websites, and use untrusted data to determine the destination pages. Without proper validation, attackers can redirect victims to phishing or malware sites, or use forwards to access unauthorized pages.
Cyber-espionage at 22%
POS intrusions at 14%
Card Skimmers at 9%
Insider Misuse at 8%
Crimeware at 4%
Misc. Errors at 2%
Physical Theft/Loss < 1%